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“ Five Whys " problem solving

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发表于 30-8-2008 21:43:45 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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“ Five Whys " problem solving
”五个为什么” 问题解决方法
The ability to apply the right lean tool to a given problem follows directly from mastery of the lean principles.
直接从精益生产原则的掌握上对于给定问题运用合适的精益工具予以解决的能力。

Proper uses of five whys “五个为什么”的合适运用
1.        As a structured approach to solve problems as they occur
问题发生时把它视为结构性解决方法策略。
2.        As a framework for a team to work through a more complex problem
对于一个较复杂问题,把它视为团队协同解决问题的框架。
Improper uses of five whys “五个为什么”的不合适运用
1.        To emphasize or blame the person, turning the five whys into the five whos
重点强调或者责备某个负责人,把“五个为什么”变成了“五个谁”。
2.        To emphasize documentation at the expense of applying the tool. When problem solving becomes a tedious, desk-intensive process, it is a punishment that gets used as little as possible.
于运用此工具解决问题相比较,过于强调文件化。当解决问题成为一个枯燥的,纸上谈兵式的过程时,越少运用“五个为什么”,越受到惩罚。
      


The five whys tool and how to use it
“五个为什么”(方法)工具以及使用方法

Using the five whys gives you a simple process to follow to solve any problem. It starts with writing or having an effective problem statement. The problem statement determines the direction you head next. If you get it wrong, every step that follows will be wrong.
按照“五个为什么”方法,对于任何问题都可以简便的解决。它是从一个笔头阐述或者陈述的有效问题开始的。问题陈述决定了下一步你解决问题的方向。如果问题陈述错误,接下来的每一步都是错误的。

Problem statements should describe the current condition, use data where possible, and describe the gap in performance. You should also be open to changing the problem statement as you learn more during your investigation. In writing problem statements, you should avoid describing the solution, postulating as to the expected cause, being vague or ambiguous or combining multiple problems into one.
问题陈述应该描述出现存状态,尽量采用数据形式,描述执行上的缺漏。当通过调查更多了解了问题后,你也应该灵活的变更问题陈述。在书写问题陈述时,你应该避免描述成解决办法,预想的产生原因,阐述模糊、不明确或者把多个问题混为一谈等情况。

Some examples of good problem statements include:
一些不错的问题陈述范例 :
•        Currently entering data into two different systems; tasks are on average 20% late from scheduled time. 当前数据输入到两个不同的系统:规定任务的完成平均比原计划时间滞后20%。
•        Overall customer complaints are up 50 percent. 顾客抱怨率总体上涨50%。
•        The #3 press is consuming $2,000 in repairs monthly.压力#3是:每月花费$2,000用来修理。

Once the problem statement is determined, you can begin using the five whys to determine the root cause. Ask "why?" in response to the problem statement, and continue asking "why" five times or until the root cause is found, no matter how many "whys" it takes. Five is not a magic number; sometimes it might be two, others nine. You should not try to skip a "why." Proceed one "why" at a time. You can test each answer to a "why" by asking, "If I remove this, will the previous answer go away?" If the answer is no, you haven't answered the "why" correctly and you should explore it further.
一旦问题陈述确定后,你可以开始运用“五个为什么”来确定问题的根本原因。对于问题陈述要问“为什么?”,不断地问“为什么”问五次或者不管问几遍,直到根本原因被找到。五不是个魔幻的数字,有时候会是二或者九。你不该试着跳过某一个“为什么”。一次问一个“为什么”。你可以这样来检验每一个“为什么”的答案,每次你问自己,“如果我把这个一个答案删除了,上一个‘为什么’的答案会不会随之无效?”如果答案是否定的,说明你还没有正确的回答这个“为什么”,你应该进一步找出问题的答案。

If you can't immediately answer a "why," go and observe or collect data until you can see the current condition clearly enough to answer it. This means you may not complete a five why analysis in one conversation.
如果你不能立即回答出某一个“为什么”,去观察或者搜集数据直到可以把问题现状看得足够清楚以回答出这个问题。这也就是说,你可能不能通过一次讨论就完成五个为什么的分析。

You have reached the end, or the root cause, when you can describe the cause of the problem in terms of an activity, connection or flow.
当你能够把问题以某个具体动作,关联或者流程的形式描述出来时,你也就完成了这个步骤,或者说找出了问题根本原因。

Example: A key piece of equipment failed.
例:某关键设备失效。
Why did the equipment fail? 为什么它会失效?
Because the circuit board burned out. 因为电路板烧坏。

Why did the circuit board burn out? 为什么电路板会烧坏?
Because it overheated. 因为它过热。

Why did it overheat? 为什么电路板过热?
Because it wasn't getting enough air.因为没有足够的空气流通。

Why was it not getting enough air? 为什么没有足够的空气流通?
Because the filter wasn't changed. 因为过滤器未更换。

Why was the filter not changed? 为什么过滤器未更换?
Because there was no preventive maintenance schedule to do so. 因为没有预相关的防性维护进度安排。


This is now a root cause that can be solved. By focusing on the question "why?", we are more likely to avoid using the other "W" question "who?".这个也就是有待解决的根本原因了。通过专注于问“为什么”,我们可以更容易地避免问“谁(负责)”。

The purpose is to fix the system, not just remove the symptom. If you aren't clear about the difference between symptoms and problems, you will not find the root cause effectively. Symptoms are the part you see -- the part on the surface. Symptoms are how you know you have a problem. Problems themselves are the cause of that symptom.
这样做的目的是修正系统,不仅仅是排除症状。如果你不是很清楚症状与问题的差异,你就不能有效地找出根本原因。症状是你看到那一部分——表面的那一部分。症状是告诉你产生问题的那些东西。而问题本身是这些症状的原因所在。

As an example, if I see oil on my garage floor and I clean up the oil, is the problem fixed? No, I just fixed a symptom of the problem, not the problem. The problem is that the car's engine leaks.
例如,如果我看见了车库里有油漏出,然后我仅是把油清理干净,那么问题解决了吗?没有,我仅仅是把问题的症状处理了一下,没有解决问题本身。问题的症结是:车的引擎漏油。

Once the root cause is determined, a countermeasure to the problem must be found. Creativity and lean tools are your most powerful allies in this part of the process. Focus on nothing but the root cause in determining the proper countermeasure. All the other work, from the problem statement to the five whys, helps to get you to this point.
一旦根本原因找到了,问题的对策也一定会找到。在这个过程中,创造力和精益工具是你最有力的帮手。在决定合适的对策时,要专注于根本原因。其他所做的工作,从问题陈述到“五个为什么”,是用来帮助你做到这一点。

A vital final step of the process is verifying that the solution worked. This should be done by seeing that the countermeasure is sustainable and making sure the original condition -- the symptom -- has been eliminated.
过程的至关重要的最后一个步骤是检验解决方法时候有效。这个应该考察对策是否合适,并确定原始状况——症状——是否已被清除。

There are two purposes for this. The first is to ensure the objective is met -- eliminating the adverse condition. The second is where learning occurs. By verifying each countermeasure, you learn what works and what doesn't. You improve your knowledge of the process you want to manage and your understanding of the problem-solving process itself.
这样做有两个目的。第一、是确保目标已实现——清除故障状况。第二、我们可以吸取教训。通过检验对策,你可以了解哪些对策有效,哪些无效。你可以更加丰富你想要管理的过程的相关知识,你可以增强对于问题解决过程本身的理解认识。

Variations 变体
The five whys can be built into many other problem-solving processes. Many companies create proprietary problem-solving processes that give them a common way to communicate. The five whys can be utilized as a formal part of a larger process or by the user to determine the root cause, which will be examined in the formal process. Other tools, such as six sigma, can help find the answer to each successive why, but do not replace the process of digging down layer by layer.
“五个为什么”方法可以融入许多其他的问题解决过程之中。许多公司创立了自己的问题解决过程方法,它们之中存在着互通之处。“五个为什么”方法可以作为一个较大过程的一个正式部分,或者帮助使用者找到根本原因,以待在正式过程中检验。其他工具(方法),例如6 sigma,可以帮助我们找到每个连续的“为什么”的答案,但不会取代我们这样逐层剖析的整个过程。

Five whys related to lean rules and principles“五个为什么”联系于精益标准与原则。
The five why process directly relates to the principle of systematic problem solving. Without this principle behind you, the five whys will not be effective. Key behaviors that must accompany the five whys include 1) surfacing problems quickly; 2) using them as opportunities to move toward the ideal state; and 3) focusing on the process, not on blaming the person.
”五个为什么”的分析过程直接与系统问题的解决相关。没有这样一个系统的观念,“五个为什么”就不会有效。与“五个为什么”相伴随的关键行为包括:1)问题迅速的平面展开;2)抓住理想状态下的机遇运用此方法;3)专注于过程,不要去责备人员。

Creating a learning organization is a principle supported by the practice of five why analysis. Using the five whys can become the driver of daily learning about the management and improvement of processes. By finding the root cause of a problem and verifying the effectiveness of the countermeasure, deep knowledge of the process can become institutionalized.
“五个为什么”分析支持一个原则,就是创立学习型的组织。运用“五个为什么”可以成为我们对于每日学习管理和过程改进的强大动力。通过寻找一个问题的根本原因以及检验对策的有效性,可以深化对过程的认识,使其制度化。

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发表于 31-8-2008 02:03:31 | 显示全部楼层
是目前国内流行的5个为什么吗?

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