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汽车工程专业英语




        宋建桐  朱春红  主  编
方  芳  张贺达  任小龙  副主编













Publishing House of Electronics Industry
北京•BEIJING

内 容 简 介
本书内容涵盖汽车发动机、底盘以及相关的新技术等,共分20个单元,每个单元包括课文、生词及专业词汇解析、长难句解析、课后练习题、课文的中文译文等内容。本书针对最新技术,甄选技术资料,力争在帮助学生提高汽车专业英语知识水平的同时,提高学生对英语文献资料的翻译和阅读能力,同时提高学生对英文的听、说、读、写能力。为了便于学生查阅、学习,书后还附有汽车专业常用的词汇和术语的中英文对照表。
本书可作为高职高专院校、成人高等院校及本科院校高职教育的汽车专业英语教材,也可供汽车生产及营销企业、汽车运输企业的从业者及相关技术人员学习、参考。

未经许可,不得以任何方式复制或抄袭本书之部分或全部内容。
版权所有,侵权必究。

图书在版编目(CIP)数据

汽车工程专业英语 / 宋建桐,朱春红主编.—北京:电子工业出版社,2010.11
高职高专“十二五”规划教材•专业英语系列
ISBN 978-7-121-12250-7
I. ①汽…  Ⅱ. ①宋… ②朱…  Ⅲ. ①汽车工程-英语-高等学校:技术学校-教材  Ⅳ. ①H31
中国版本图书馆CIP数据核字(2010)第221120号

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前    言
近年来,汽车技术的发展日新月异,我国汽车行业也发展迅速,急需大批熟悉外国汽车技术特点、能够熟练阅读英文技术资料、掌握扎实的专业英语知识的应用型人才。本书旨在向读者介绍汽车的新结构与新技术,使读者了解当今汽车领域发展的前沿技术和最新动态,力争在帮助读者提高汽车专业英语知识水平的同时,提高读者对英语文献资料的翻译和阅读能力,同时提高读者对英语的听、说、读、写能力。
本书共分20单元,内容涵盖汽车发动机、底盘以及相关的新技术等。每个单元包括课文、生词及专业词汇解析、长难句解析、课后练习题和课文的中文翻译等内容。为了便于学生查阅、学习,书后还附有汽车专业常用的词汇和术语的中英文对照表。
本书由长期从事高职高专汽车专业教学的教师与专业英语教师共同编写,对专业知识与英语知识两手抓。本书在编写过程中参阅了大量外文原著资料和外文网站内容,力图为读者呈现出原汁原味的英语语言表达和专业术语运用,同时我们在课文中插入大量图片,力求图文并茂,帮助读者更清晰明了地学习和掌握知识。
本书由宋建桐、朱春红担任主编,方芳、张贺达、任小龙担任副主编。其中宋建桐编写了Chapter 3、Chapter 4、Chapter 6、Chapter 11、Chapter 12、Chapter 14、Chapter 19、Chapter 20,朱春红编写了Chapter 2、Chapter 5、Chapter 7~Chapter 10,张贺达编写了Chapter 1、Chapter 13、Chapter 15~Chapter 18,方芳负责核对每篇英文课文的语法、时态,并编制课后注释,任小龙负责编制词汇、术语表。
本书可作为高职高专院校、成人高等院校及本科院校高职教育的汽车专业英语教材,也可供汽车生产及营销企业、汽车运输企业的从业者及相关技术人员学习、参考。
本书力求突出汽车专业知识与英语知识的结合与应用,由于编者水平有限,疏漏和不妥之处在所难免,殷切期望广大教师和读者不吝指正,以使本书不断优化、完善。

                                                         编  者      
目    录
Chapter 1  Automotive Historical Background        (1)
Chapter 2  Introduction to Engines        (10)
Chapter 3  The Basic Engine        (19)
Chapter 4  Engine Systems        (28)
Chapter 5  Four-Stroke Gasoline Engine        (37)
Chapter 6  Electrical and Electronic Systems        (47)
Chapter 7  Variable Valve Timing        (58)
Chapter 8  Electronic Fuel Injection        (68)
Chapter 9  Electronic Ignition Systems        (78)
Chapter 10  Emission Control Systems        (89)
Chapter 11  Drivetrain        (98)
Chapter 12  Automatic Transmission        (111)
Chapter 13  Four-Wheel Drives        (121)
Chapter 14  Running System        (129)
Chapter 15  Active Suspensions        (140)
Chapter 16  Wheel Alignment        (148)
Chapter 17  Antilock Brake        (158)
Chapter 18  Automatic Traction Control        (168)
Chapter 19  Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems        (176)
Chapter 20  Hybrid Electric Vehicles        (186)
GLOSSARY        (194)



Chapter 12  Automatic Transmission
A transmission(Figure 12-1) is a part of the drive train. The transmission is used to transfer the engine power to the drive wheels. It also allows the driver to choose more power (1-st gear) or more speed (4-th or 5-th gear) by changing the gear ratio.

Figure 12-1  The cutaway view of an automatic transmission.

Figure 12-2  Simple planetary gear set.
1-sun gear; 2-planetary carrier; 3-outer ring gear; 4-planetary pinions
In an automatic transmission, gears are changed automatically, according to the engine RPM, vehicle speed, load and other factors. A typical automatic transmission has four or five forward gears or speeds. Some automatic transmissions also have a manual shift mode allowing the driver to select gears manually.
To change the gear ratio, most automatic transmissions use planetary gear set. A typical planetary gear set consists of three main parts: outer ring gear, inner gear, called sun gear, and planetary carrier with three or four planetary pinions that are placed between the inner sun gear and the outer ring gear(Figure 12-2).
At any time, one of the parts of the planetary gear set can be connected to the input shaft leading to the engine, a second part can be held stationary and the third part is connected to the output shaft. Depending on which part is stationary, which part is the input and which part is the output, different gear ratios will result. Hydraulic clutch packs, brake bands and one-way clutches are used to control power flow through the planetary gear. Each gear corresponds to a certain combination of clutch packs and brake bands being engaged or disengaged.

Figure 12-3  Torque converter.
1-impller; 2-turbine; 3-stator;
4-overunning clutch; 5-lockup plunger;
6-friction lining
An automatic transmission is connected to the engine via a torque converter(Figure 12-3). A torque converter acts in a similar fashion to the clutch in a manual transmission. However, unlike a clutch which relies on mechanical friction, a torque converter uses fluid flow to transfer the engine torque to the transmission. The torque converter consists of impeller, the turbine, and the stator. The impeller is mounted directly to the torque converter housing which is bolted directly to the engine's crankshaft and turns at engine speed. The turbine is inside the housing and is connected directly to the input shaft of the transmission providing power to move the vehicle. The stator is mounted to a one-way clutch so that it can spin freely in one direction but not in the other.
Modern Automatic Transmissions are electronically controlled by a micro-computer which is called the Transmission Control Module (TCM). Analyzing various inputs, such as vehicle speed, engine rpm, throttle position, etc., the TCM decides which gear to shift to and when. To shift a gear the TCM sends a command to the solenoid valves located in the transmission valve body. Solenoid valves redirect the transmission fluid flow, engaging or disengaging certain clutch packs and brakes, which results in gear shifting.
The automatic transmission is one of the most complicated and thus one of the less reliable parts of the vehicle. The repair of an automatic transmission is complex and tends to be quite expensive.
Most of the transmission troubles start from overheating.
Under heavy load, such as towing a heavy trailer, rocking the vehicle from the snow, having continuous stop and go traffic in hot weather, racing, etc., the transmission overheats. At higher temperatures the transmission fluid burns, losing its lubricating qualities and becomes oxidized leaving deposits all over inside the transmission. Exposed to the heat the rubber seals and gaskets inside the transmission become hardened causing leaks. The metal parts warp and lose their strength. All this, sooner or later, results in transmission failure.
However, overheating is not the only reason. Sometimes transmission breaks down because of poor design, due to lack of maintenance or after being rebuilt by inexperienced technician. Few other reasons: harsh driving, too low or too high transmission fluid level or wrong transmission fluid type.
Some methods which prevent the transmission from damage include the followings.
(1) Regularly check your parking space for leaks. Doesn't matter, is it the engine oil leak, power steering fluid or transmission fluid; if you discover any, get it fixed before it caused something serious.
(2) Once in a while check the transmission fluid level and condition. Not all cars however have the automatic transmission dipstick, in some cars, the transmission fluid can only be checked by the dealer. If the transmission fluid level is too low, there is a leak somewhere that needs to be fixed.
(3) Change the fluid as often as it said in your owner's manual or when it becomes too dark or dirty.
Also, keep in mind that an automatic transmission can not be drained completely. There is always some transmission fluid left inside the transmission (in the torque converter, in the valve body, etc.), which means you only can change about 60% of the fluid at once. This is one more reason to change it more often.
(4) Use only the same type of the transmission fluid as specified in the owner's manual or on the dipstick. Some vehicles are very sensitive to fluid type.
(5) Never shift to the Reverse or Parking until the car comes to a complete stop.
(6) Never shift from the Parking mode when engine rpm is higher than normal idle.
If you experience any problems with your transmission such as leaks, noises, problems with shifting, etc. Don't wait until the problem will become worse and car will finally stop somewhere on a highway, visit your trusted local transmission shop. Automatic transmission problems never disappear by themselves. Also, when going for the repair, try to explain to service person more detailed (what exactly problem you experience, when it happens, what does it look like, and so on). It will be easier for them to repair the transmission.
It is important for you to go for a service to your car make dealer. They have original parts, they know exactly what type of the fluid to use and their technicians are highly trained to service particular vehicle model. Even if you go to the independent garage, you should ask to use original parts. Sometimes, the after-market parts are not of as good quality as original.
New Words
drive                 n. 驱动器,驱动
gear                 n. 齿轮
load                 n. 负荷,装载量;v. 加载
shaft                 n. 轴
hydraulic                 adj. 液压的
clutch                 n. 离合器
brake                 n. 制动器
impeller                 n. 泵轮
turbine                 n. 涡轮
stator                 n. 导轮
housing                 n. 壳,罩
crankshaft         n. 机轴,曲轴
spin                 n./v. 旋转
throttle                 n. 节气门
solenoid                 n. 电磁线圈,螺线管
transmission        n. 变速器
overheat                 v. (使)变得过热
lubricate                 vt. 润滑
oxidize                 v. 使氧化
seal                n. 油封
gasket                         n. 垫圈
harden                 v. 老化,变硬
leak                n./v. 泄漏
dipstick                 n. 油尺,量油计
torque                 n. 转矩,转矩
converter         n. 起转变、转化作用的装置
valve                 n. 阀
shift                n/v 变速,变挡
reverse                 n. 倒挡
parking                 n. 驻车挡
Phrases and Expressions
automatic transmission                                        自动变速器
drive train                                                        传动系统
gear ratio                                                                传动比
engine RPM                                                        发动机转速
forward gear                                                        前进挡
manual shift mode                                                手动换挡模式
planetary gear                                                        行星齿轮
outer ring gear                                                        齿圈
inner gear                                                                中心齿轮
sun gear                                                                太阳轮
planetary carrier                                                行星齿轮架
one-way clutch                                                单向离合器
torque converter                                                液力变矩器
manual transmission                                        手动变速器
transmission control module                                变速器控制模块(TCM)
heavy load                                                        大负荷
transmission fluid                                                变速器油
rubber seal                                                        橡胶油封
engine oil                                                                发动机油
power steering fluid                                                动力转向油
torque converter                                                液力变矩器
Notes
1. Some automatic transmissions also have a manual shift mode allowing the driver to select gears manually. 有些自动变速器还有一个手动换挡模式,驾驶员也可以手动换挡。
allow sb to do sth. 允许某人做某事。
allowing the driver to select gears manually 现在分词作定语后置,修饰a manual shift mode。
2. To change the gear ratio, most automatic transmissions use planetary gear set. 为了能够改变变速器的传动比,大多数自动变速器使用了行星齿轮机构。
to change the gear ratio 不定式作目的状语。
3. A typical planetary gear set consists of three main parts: outer ring gear, inner gear, called sun gear, and planetary carrier with three or four planetary pinions that are placed between the inner sun gear and the outer ring gear. 一个典型的行星齿轮机构包括三个主要元件:外部的齿圈、中心齿轮(也叫太阳轮)和带有三个或者四个行星小齿轮的行星齿轮架,行星齿轮置于齿圈和太阳轮之间。
called sun gear 过去分词作定语后置,用于附加说明inner gear。
that are placed between the inner sun gear and the outer ring gear  that引导定语从句,用于修饰planetary carrier。
4. Depending on which part is stationary, which part is the input and which part is the output, different gear ratios will result. 被固定的元件不同,就会在输入与输出元件之间产生不同的传动比。
depending on现在分词作状语,作为附加说明。
5. Each gear corresponds to a certain combination of clutch packs and brake bands being engaged or disengaged. 每个挡位都对应离合器和制动器工作状态的某一种组合。
brake bands being engaged or disengaged. 现在分词的被动形式,定语后置。
6. An automatic transmission is connected to the engine via a torque converter. 自动变速器是通过液力变矩器与发动机相连的。
via 引导的介词短语作方式状语。例如:
He traveled from London to Paris via Dover. 他从伦敦经由多佛至巴黎。
7. A torque converter acts in a similar fashion to the clutch in a manual transmission. 液力变矩器的作用类似于手动变速器中的离合器。
fashion 方式,方法。例如:
He walks in a peculiar fashion. 他走路的样子很奇特。
8. The stator is mounted to a one-way clutch so that it can spin freely in one direction but not in the other. 导轮装配有单向离合器,以便它只能单向自由地转动。       
so that 引导目的状语从句。
9. Analyzing various inputs, such as vehicle speed, engine rpm, throttle position, etc., the TCM decides which gear to shift to and when. TCM通过分析各种输入信号,例如车速、发动机转速、节气门位置等,来决定何时换入何挡。
analyzing various inputs现在分词作状语表示条件。
10. Solenoid valves redirect the transmission fluid flow, engaging or disengaging certain clutch packs and brakes, which results in gear shifting. 电磁阀改变变速器液体的流动方向,使离合器和制动器的工作状态
tend to do 趋向于,倾向于。例如:
He tends to pitch the ball too high. 他常把球掷得很高。
12. At higher temperatures the transmission fluid burns, losing its lubricating qualities and becomes oxidized leaving deposits all over inside the transmission. 在较高温度下,变速器油被烧焦,失去润滑性,并在变速器内表面上氧化出积炭。
losing its lubricating qualities和 leaving deposits all over inside the transmission 现在分词短语作状语,分别表示伴随和结果。
13. Exposed to the heat the rubber seals and gaskets inside the transmission become hardened causing leaks. 变速器内的橡胶油封、垫圈受热后会老化,产生泄漏。
exposed (使暴露)to the heat 过去分词短语作状语,表示时间。过去分词(短语)作状语时,一般与主句的主语为被动关系,可以表示伴随情况(即主句的谓语动作与状语同时发生)、原因、条件,也可以表示时间。例如:
He entered, accompanied by his secretary. 他由秘书陪着走了进来。(伴随)
Moved by his speech, many people volunteered to help in the work. 由于受他讲话的感动,许多人自愿参加这项活动。(原因)
Taken in time, the medicine will be quite effective. 如果及时服用,这种药是相当有效的。(条件)
Heated, water changes into steam. 当被加热的时候,水可以变成水蒸气。(时间)
14. Sometimes transmission breaks down because of poor design, due to lack of maintenance or after being rebuilt by inexperienced technician. 有时变速器出现故障是因为存在设计缺陷,缺乏保养或者是由一个缺少经验的技师装配所致。
break down  出现故障。
due to  由于(后加短语)。
lack of  缺乏(后加名词)。
15. Some methods which prevent the transmission from damage include the followings. 一些可以防止变速器损坏的方法如下。
which prevent the transmission from damage为限定性定语从句,修饰some methods。
prevent… from (后加名词或动名词)  阻止。
16. There is always some transmission fluid left inside the transmission (in the torque converter, in the valve body, etc.), which means you only can change about 60% of the fluid at once. 总会有些变速器油被留在变速器里(液力变矩器里、阀体里等),这意味着你每次只能更换掉60%的自动 变速器油。
which means you only can change about 60% of the fluid at once 为非限定性定语从句,修饰前面主句。
17. Never shift to the Reverse or Parking until the car comes to a complete stop. 在车辆完全停止之前不要挂倒挡或驻车挡。
until 直到…。例如:
Wait until the rain stops. 等到雨停了再说吧。
The street is full of traffic from morning till night. 这条街从早到晚行人车辆很多。
The secret was never told until after the old man’s death. 这个秘密在老人去世后才说出来。
18. Also, when going for the repair, try to explain to service person more detailed (what exactly problem you experience, when it happens, what does it look like, and so on). 同时,当你去维修的时候,尽量向修理人员解释得更详细些(你经历的确切的故障,故障发生的时间,是怎样一种情形等)。
when going for the repair 省略了从句中的主语和be 动词。
在以if, when, though, as if等连词引导的从句中,如从句中的主要动词是be, 常将主语和动词be省略。例如:
If necessary, we shall send a telegram home. 如有必要,我们就往家里发电报。
When cycling, don’t forget the traffic lights. 骑车时,不要忘记看红绿灯。
Whenever possible, he will come to my help. 他一有可能就来帮助我。
19. They have original parts, they know exactly what type of the fluid to use and their technicians are highly trained to service particular vehicle model. 他们拥有原厂的配件,他们准确地知道变速器油的类型,并且他们的技师接受过指定车型的高水平培训。
they know exactly what type of the fluid to use是动词不定式的特殊用法。
疑问词(who/what/which/when/where/whether/how)后接不定式结构,在句中可作主语、宾语、表语等。经常在这种结构中使用的动词有:know、consider、decide、explain、find、hear、forget、learn、understand等。例如:
I asked Professor Xu how to learn English well. 我向许教授请教如何学好英文。
When to leave for London has not been decided yet. 何时前往伦敦还没有决定。
20. Sometimes, the after-market parts are not of as good quality as original. 有时,市场上的配件质量不如原厂的配件质量好。
be of +抽象名词,这种结构可以作定语或表语,表示事物的特征性质等。
be of +抽象名词相当于be of +形容词。例如:
The book is of great importance to me. / The book is very important to me. 这本书对于我来说很重要。
Review Questions
1. At any time, one of the parts of the planetary gear can be connected to the leading to the engine, a second part can              and the third part is connected to the              .
2. Modern Automatic Transmissions are electronically controlled by a micro-computer which is called the              .
3. Analyzing various inputs, such as              , engine rpm,              , etc., the TCM decides which gear to shift to and when.
4. Under heavy load, such as towing a heavy trailer, rocking the vehicle from the snow, having continuous stop and go traffic in hot weather, racing, etc., the transmission             .
5. You only can change about              of the fluid at once. This is one more reason to change it more often.
6. Explain the differences between automatic transmission and manual transmission.
7. What components is a simple planetary-gear set made up of?
8. What components is a torque converter made up of?
9. How to prevent the transmission from damage?
10. Why should you go to your car make dealer for a service?
译文
自动变速器
变速器是传动系统的组成部分,它是用来将发动机动力传递到驱动车轮,驾驶员可以通过改变变速器传动比来选择具有较大牵引力的挡位(1挡)或者具有较高速度的挡位(4挡或5挡)。
在自动变速器上,挡位是根据发动机转速、车速、载荷和其他因素自动变换的。典型的自动变速器有四个或者五个前进挡。有些自动变速器还有一个手动换挡模式,驾驶员也可以手动换挡。
为了能够改变变速器的传动比,大多数自动变速器使用了行星齿轮机构。一个典型的行星齿轮机构包括三个主要元件:外部的齿圈、中心齿轮(也叫太阳轮)和带有三个或者四个行星小齿轮的行星齿轮架,行星齿轮置于齿圈和太阳轮之间。
在任何时候,行星齿轮机构都有一个元件与变速器的输入轴连接,输入轴与发动机相连,再有一个元件被固定,还有一个元件与变速器输出轴连接。被固定的元件不同,就会在输入与输出元件之间产生不同的传动比。液压的离合器、带式制动器和单向离合器用来控制动力通过行星齿轮机构的路线,每个挡位都对应离合器和制动器工作状态的某一种组合。
自动变速器是通过液力变矩器与发动机相连的,液力变矩器的作用类似于手动变速器中的离合器。液力变矩器不像离合器那样利用机械摩擦,而是利用液体传动将发动机的转矩传递给变速器的。液力变矩器由泵轮、涡轮和导轮组成。泵轮直接与液力变矩器壳连接,液力变矩器壳体通过螺钉直接与发动机曲轴相连,并与发动机同速转动。涡轮在液力变矩器壳体内,与变速器输入轴直接相连,提供驱动车轮的动力。导轮装配有单向离合器,以便它只能单向自由地转动。
现代自动变速器是由一个叫做变速器控制模块(TCM)的微型计算机来控制的。TCM通过分析各种输入信号,例如车速、发动机转速、节气门位置等,来决定何时换入何挡。为了能够改变挡位,TCM向位于阀体内的电磁阀发送命令,电磁阀改变变速器液体的流动方向,使离合器和制动器的工作状态发生变化,最终实现变速器挡位的变换。
自动变速器是最复杂的汽车总成部件之一,也是比较容易出故障的总成部件。因此,自动变速器的维修是一项复杂而又价高的工作。
自动变速器的很多故障均源于温度过高。
在大负荷行驶情况下,如牵引大型挂车、雪地上摇摆行驶、高温天气下频繁停车起步、参与竞赛等,变速器的温度就会过高。在较高温度下,变速器油被烧焦,失去润滑性,并在变速器内表面上氧化出积炭。变速器内的橡胶油封、垫圈受热后会老化,产生泄漏。金属元件会因为受热而变形,原有的强度也会降低。这最终将导致变速器出现故障。
然而,温度过高并不是引发变速器故障的唯一原因。有时变速器出现故障是因为存在设计缺陷,缺乏保养或者是由一个缺少经验的技师装配所致。其他的原因还有:使用不当,变速器油液面过低或过高以及变速器油类型选用错误。
一些可以防止变速器损坏的方法如下。
(1)定期检查停车场路面上汽车泄漏的油。无论是发动机油、动力转向油还是变速器油,只要发现有泄漏痕迹,就要在它引起其他的故障之前进行维修。
(2)有时要检查变速器油的液面高度。不是所有的汽车,但有些汽车的自动变速器是有油尺的。还有一些汽车,变速器油的液面高度是只能由经销商来检测的。如果变速器油液面过低,那应该存在需要进行维修的泄漏部位。
(3)按照用户手册的规定更换变速器油,或者一旦变速器油变得太黑或太脏的时候就立即更换。
另外,切记自动变速器油是不能被完全排出来的,总会有些变速器油被留在变速器里(液力变矩器里、阀体里等),这意味着你每次只能更换掉60%的自动变速器油。这也是要经常更换变速器油的原因之一。
(4)只能使用由用户手册指定的或与油尺上标定一致的自动变速器油。有一些车辆对自动变速器油的类型比较敏感。
(5)在车辆完全停止之前不要挂倒挡或驻车挡。
(6)在发动机转速高于正常怠速时不要摘掉驻车挡。
如果你遇到变速器发生一些故障,如漏油、有噪声、换挡困难等故障,不要等,一定要到你信任的当地变速器修理厂进行维修,否则故障会变得更严重,导致汽车最终将会在路边抛锚。自动变速器的故障是不会自行消失的。同时,当你去维修的时候,尽量向修理人员解释得更详细些(你经历的确切的故障,故障发生的时间,是怎样一种情形等),这有助于他们修好你的变速器。
对你来说,坚持到汽车经销商处进行维修保养是很重要的,这是因为他们拥有原厂的配件,他们准确地知道变速器油的类型,并且他们的技师接受过指定车型的高水平培训。即使你去普通的汽修厂,你也应该要求他们使用原厂配件。有时,市场上的配件质量不如原厂的配件质量好。
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